"Three years ago, after a prostate biopsy, I was given the diagnosis of aggressive Stage III adenocarcinoma. I didn’t know what to do. The urologist made appointments for me to start radiation, and maybe chemo. Then a friend told me cannabis cures cancer. It just so happened that the first human trials of cannabis treatment of astrocytomas (inoperable brain cancer), were published with encouraging results. So I decided; rather than die from the medical treatment, I would do the cannabis cure. Now… where to get some. There was no dispensary in the area, but a friend made me cannabis butter, so I took that, up to tolerance. In three months the primary cancer was gone, only minor metastatic lesions were left. At that point I found a supplier for Rick Simpson oil and killed off the metastases in the next three months. Now I just take a maintenance dose of locally produced hash oil that is 1:1 THC:CBD with about a 30% potency. This will certainly keep me clear of cancer, anywhere, for ever.
My point in telling this story is the fact that in the face of advanced aggressive cancer, all I had was very weak cannabutter, but it was enough to eliminate the primary tumor. Now there are strains of 95% THC. But is this necessary? If you have cancer and want to pursue the cannabis treatment, any at all will be good. More important than extreme potency, is balance between THC and CBD. If you can get high potency, great. If not, common potencies will work perfectly.
Finally, if you choose cannabinoid treatment, start small, then increase dosage as rapidly as tolerable. To kill cancer you have to hit it hard, be conscientious about your treatment. Cannabis does no harm to the body, it is a metabolic support for the immune system."
Might as well just jump in and do what needs to be done. Fortunately, California is more lenient than other states regarding medical cannabis. I went to the local franchise, MediCann, to get certified to use medical cannabis. I’ve acquired a small supply of concentrated resin for daily use. It is so nice to sleep through the night again. This amount of cannabinoid is a shock to the system and it has taken about a week to acclimate to it. Now I’m up to the full strength dose, about one gram per day in two divided doses. I’ve noticed that blood pressure is down 20 - 40 points, that is, back to normal. Perhaps I can quit taking the BP meds. Overall, this daily intake of cannabinoids slows me down some, but I don’t mind. It doesn’t restrict me in the least. For some reason I don’t want to drive as fast on the freeway, but this is a good thing. It’s a nice feeling to be a little more laid back. I’m very aware of the anxiolytic and anti-spasmodic qualities of cannabis; this makes me very happy for lots of reasons. For example...
One of the complications of adenocarcinoma is prostate enlargement that causes compression of the bladder and urethra, creating numerous dangerous urinary tract issues. Anti-spasmodic cannabis brings enough tissue relaxation that urgency, frequency, and urethral stricture is substantially alleviated. Certainly there are pharmaceuticals that will do this, but they are expensive, and have serious or even fatal side effects.
The well known anxiolytic property of cannabis provides an improvement in quality of life in all facets of living in the world. It is so sublime to feel contented well-being going through this process of healing. Sure beats life in a hospital.
August 8, 2010
I’m really surprised that there is so much good information on the internet about medical cannabis. Even though many are taking the curative powers of cannabis quite seriously, there are still no controlled studies on the effectiveness of cannabis treatment of cancer. There are numerous anecdotal cases that are grounds for optimism but I would like to see some good science with controlled variables. Mostly I would like to see strain potency standards for the various cannabinoids used therapeutically for cancer and other health concerns. Fortunately there is a lab in Oakland that specializes in cannabinoid profiling (CW Analytical Labs). They have an analytics library of common strains and also do custom analyses. Good start.
Oops! What just happened? Did I just gain ten pounds? Hmm. Guess it’s true what they say about the munchies. Must get this turned around immediately. Less calories in; more calories out. Run more!
August 26, 2010
This journal was started to capture the ordinary as well as extraordinary events and experiences along this healing path. We are about nine weeks into this experiment and I’m noticing a couple of things since starting the cannabis regimen. One, a chronic intestinal distress of two years has suddenly resolved. And the other is an increase in physical vitality. Since a very serious illness ten years ago I have been walking for exercise. Up to now, running was painful and exhausting, due to several orthopedic surgeries that didn’t go well. Just this week, the body has just wanted to run instead of walk. I’m starting slowly, walking some, running some; but in only one week my stride has started to stretch out nicely. This is completely unexpected.
September 6, 2010
One of the first things a prostate patient notices is frequency and urgency. Oh good, there’s a drug for that: Flomax. There are some morbid side effects (for me nearly fatal), but it does reduce symptoms; and it is very expensive. We know that cannabinoids are anti-spasmodic; it seemed reasonable that cannabis might relax the urethral stricture, and take over for Flomax. Last week I stopped taking the Flomax; with no return of symptoms. This, too, was completely unexpected. I am delighted in the extreme to be without the expense and the side-effects.
I am quite encouraged by some of the signs along the way to a general awakening to the medical efficacy of cannabinoids. For instance, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued a patent on cannabis to the federal government (Dept. of Health and Human Services) for its health benefits in treating autoimmune and inflammatory diseases; stating specifically Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, HIV, and dementia. This is patent #6630507 granted in 2003. In fact, there are numerous prescription pharmaceuticals of synthetic THC. These are Dronabinol (Marinol), Sativex, and Nabilone. There is also HU-210 that is 100 times as potent as THC. These drugs are widely prescribed in the United States, Europe, and Asia. This tells me that certain sectors of our culture are already going full bore to put cannabis to work in the service of improving human health. We wait patiently for the remaining obstacles to fall away. Seems that a major obstacle is that a few still think that if a medicine has the side-effect of contented well-being, it needs to be illegal. Not sure what to think about that.
The primary complaint about the synthetic THC pharmaceuticals is that there are many other therapeutic cannabinoids in cannabis that are not represented in the pharmaceutical, which dilutes the effectiveness of a singular THC analog. To get around this, chemists have created HU-331 which is a synthetic cannabidiol and is used as a potent anti-cancer agent. Want to know how HU-331 kills cancer? It unravels the cancer cell’s DNA. That kills it for sure. If this doesn’t tell us anything, I have another story. Analyze mother’s milk and you will find the endocannabinoid 2-AG. All babies start life with this cannabis cocktail. Really, if this weren't healthy for us, it wouldn’t be in mother’s milk. 2-AG (arachnidonoylglycerol) is similar to anandamide, and is found in high concentrations in brain and spinal cord tissues. As such, it is a CB1 receptor agonist.
September 24th, 2010
It has been two months since beginning this alternative treatment with the herbal cannabinoids, with no adjunct treatment of chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation. What has been the effect of this radical excursion into self-treatment? In a routine prostate exam yesterday, the urologist determined that since he checked three months ago, the prostate has “substantially” decreased in size indicating remission of the tumor. Let’s put this news into perspective of how far we have really come. Looking at the details of the prostate biopsy Histology Report indicates that all six needle biopsy samples showed adenocarcinoma involving an average of 90% of tissue, with Gleason Scores of sevens and eights. Gleason scores range from one to eight with the highest score characteristic of highly aggressive cancer with the worst prognosis. This is huge to overcome in two months.
There is another indicator that is in play here. PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) is useful for judging cancer activity. My PSA, as of last week, was measured as <0.1ng/mL. This means no activity at all. Normal range is 1 - 4. My previous PSA was 8.0, so we see how far we have progressed in two months. Actually, this is remarkable.
There is one other thing to note. In the months of treatment, taking very high doses of cannabinoid extract, what has been the effect on my daily life of this potent psychotropic? Not much, really. I take a large does before bed and a small dose in the morning. It took a week for my system to become accustomed to it, then it was life as usual of work and play.
As for the future; maybe I will decline two months of radiation that is planned to begin next month. This is the best news of my life. And it will be nice to continue to support this good health with nature’s best medicine for many more years.
January 12, 2011
During the prostate exam yesterday, the urologist, surprised at the shrinkage of the prostate and absence of pain on examination, said, “It’s hardly there any more, compared to the enlarged fully involved tumor we saw a few months ago.” We will do another biopsy of the prostate in a couple of weeks in order to get cytological examination of the tissue and to evaluate the presence or absence of adenocarcinoma. At this point I’m feeling optimistic. But we will not know anything until we see the pathology report of the biopsy. Of course we ran a PSA, which was essentially zero. This means that the immune system is not seeing any cancer activity. Same as three months ago.
January 25, 2011
Prostate biopsy today (ouch). The urologist observed that the prostate has shrunk to less than normal. A normal prostate will be about 36cc volume. Today mine measured 13cc’s. The doctor is encouraged by this, but we will wait until February 8th to get the tissue histology report to consider future therapy. The prostate was so small, he could only get four biopsy samples, instead of the 6 or 8 that is normally taken. Glad that’s over.
One nice little surprise during six months of cannabinoid therapy, is that I have not been sick all winter—no colds, flu, sinus. Given that cannabidiol is an immune system modulating agent we might expect that this would provide a quick resolution for diseases that trigger immune response. It’s also nice that I’m not hungry all the time any more.
The histology report of the prostate biopsy says that there is no cancer detectable. I’m very happy to have beat this insidious killer, thanks to so many who have helped me get to this place.
Looking back I find it amazing that this deadly cancer was quickly wiped out using natural enzymes of the cannabis plant. Looking forward, how do I avoid the return of the dreaded adenocarcinoma that we know comes back in 70% of conventional therapy cases? Perhaps the conditions are still present to reignite cancer invasion, considering that genetics might be a player in this little drama. Is there anything that will inhibit the formation of prostate cancer?
It turns out that yes, currently available is an enzyme that kills prostate cancer stem cells. Now that the cancer cells are gone, gamma-tocotrienol will kill the arising stem cells that would potentially bring the cancer back. What is this gamma-tocotrienol, where did it originate and what does it do, exactly?
Gamma-tocotrienol (y-T3) is an isomer of vitamin E that is extracted from palm oil. Taken orally, gamma-tocotrienol is most potent in suppressing prostate cancer cell proliferation, which acts through multiple-signaling pathways. This signaling is through proteins that regulate immune response, such as NFkB and EGF-R. In this way gamma-tocotrienol down-regulates pro-survival signaling pathways inducing apoptosis, cell death. This process is highly specific in that it spares normal prostate tissue. This ability of gamma-tocotrienol to eradicate prostate cancer also acts to suppress cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Stopping this cancer from spreading or returning is primary in choosing an appropriate therapy.9
Another pathway taken by gamma-tocotrienol to control prostate cancer stem cells is the up-regulation of the p53 protein. This is associated with the ejection of cytchrome c from the mitochondrial nucleus to the liquid matrix (cytosol) of cellular cytoplasm. Is this starting to sound familiar? This is the same pathway that THC and cannabidiol use in stimulating ceramide synthesis in the cancer cell to cause cell apoptosis. Essentially, the cannabinoids and gamma-tocotrienols are performing the same function along similar metabolic pathways to kill cancer and its stem cells.
This strategy appears likely to bring a long lifetime free of any cancer. That’s a good thing. But I’ve never been one to do whatever is just enough. I like beyond just enough, for most things. So what else can I do to eliminate the possibility of cancer recurrence?
As you can probably imagine from the taste of pomegranate it is loaded with a remarkable array of phenylpropanoids and ellagitannins. Since prostate cancer depends completely on testosterone to grow and spread, phenylpropanoids disrupts the communication between testosterone and the cell, thus leaving the cancer to wither. Now, what does ellagitannins bring to the table? We know that rapid growth of cancer cells requires increased blood vessel formation (angiogenesis). Ellagitannins have been shown to inhibit angiogenesis in neoplastic tissue. Cancer growth is inhibited from lack of oxygen so cellular proliferation can not occur; thus again, apoptosis.10
This should do it; but Rick Simpson chimes in here also, he says that once the cancer is cleared, we can keep a maintenance routine of one regular dose every week or two that will kill any cancer before it aggregates into an active neoplasm.
Six months ago when I started taking massive amounts of cannabinoid extract, the burning question in my mind was, “What will happen when I quit taking this stuff? Will I become dependent. What will withdrawal be like?” I was a little afraid. At the end of the six month treatment I abruptly stopped the medication—and waited for withdrawal to happen. There were a couple of days I was a little cranky; but mostly, withdrawal was a non-event. I just didn’t feel any different. Contemplating this I wondered, why wasn’t it more traumatic. The answer is simply this: in our normal physiology there is already the full array of endocannabinoid channels that the additional dosage supports. When the additional extract is withdrawn, the existing anandamide (our natural cannabinoid) metabolic pathways resume their normal function. The adjustment is very slight.
Now that the cancer is gone, continuing metabolic support with pomegranate and tocotrienol, or cannabinoid support, will assure that it will never return. I’ve been given a new life; it’s thrilling to contemplate the possibilities.
As the body, its organs and tissues, fall out of balance or become diseased, cannabinoids have a restorative effect wherever the tissues are damaged, bringing optimal health in all structures and functions in the body. To illustrate this, one particular cannabinoid detects proliferation of tumor cells, binds to the appropriate receptor site (CB2), and causes cancer cell death, leaving normal cells untouched.1 This effect is shown easily in the lab, but is this scalable to the human condition? We shall see.
In my high school physiology course, the first important concept I learned was homeostasis, the persistent tendency of the body to maintain metabolic balance. It does this through several related systems; so we see that the body likes to be healthy and happy. That is its nature.
Why does the body allow these foreign cannabinoids to come in and take control of such essential physiological processes, without some kind of reaction? It is simply because this modulation system is already set up, and has been functional for millions of years; it’s in the DNA of all living creatures. Only it’s called the endocannabinoid system. Let’s look and see what this system is all about. In the Journal of Neuroimmunology we find a succinct summary:
The endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands and enzymes for synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids and represents a local messenger system within and between the nervous and immune system. Apparently, the endocannabinoid system is involved in immune control and neuroprotection.2
This is amazing. Our own endocannabinoid system covers all cells and nerves; it is the messenger of information flowing between our immune system and the central nervous system (CNS). It is responsible for neuroprotection, and micro-manages the immune system. This is the primary control system that maintains homeostasis; our well being.
Just out of curiosity, how does the work get done at the cellular level, and where does the body make the endocannabinoids? Here is a quick look:
In standard neurotransmission, the pre-synaptic neuron releases neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft which binds to cognate receptors expressed on the post-synaptic neuron. Upon binding, the neuron depolarizes. This depolarization facilitates the influx of calcium into the neuron; this increase in calcium activates an enzyme called transacylase which catalyzes the first step of endocannabinoid biosynthesis.3
Here we see that endocannabinoids have their origin in nerve cells right at the synapse. When the body is compromised through illness or injury it calls insistently to the endocannabinoid system to direct the immune system to bring healing. If these homeostatic systems are weakened, it should be no surprise that hemp cannabinoids are therapeutic. It helps the body in the most natural way possible.
To see how this works we visualize the cannabinoid as a three dimensional molecule, where one part of the molecule is configured to fit the nerve or immune cell receptor site just like a key in a lock. There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptor sites, CB1 (CNS) and CB2 (immune). In general CB1 gives us the buzz, and CB2 activates the immune system, but it’s much more complex than this. Both THC and anandamide activate both receptor sites. Other cannabinoids activate one or the other receptor sites.4 Among the strains of Cannabis, C. sativa tends toward the CB1 receptor, and C. indica tends toward CB2. So sativa is better for buzz, and indica is better for healing. Another factor here is that sativa is dominated by THC cannabinoids, and indica is predominately CBD (cannabidiol).
It is known that THC and CBD are biomimetic to anandamide, that is, the body can use both interchangeably. Thus, when stress, injury, or illness demand more from endogenous anandamide than can be produced by the body, its mimetic exocannabinoids can be administered. If the stress is transitory, then the treatment can be transitory. If the demand is sustained, such as in cancer, then treatment needs to provide sustained pressure of the modulating agent on the homeostatic systems. This is why Rick Simpson recommends twice daily doses of hemp oil extract (C. indica), for three months, in the case of cancer.
Typically CBD gravitates to the densely packed CB2 receptors in the spleen, home to the body’s immune system. From there, immune cells seek out and destroy cancer cells. Interestingly, it has been shown that CBD cannabinoids have the ability to kill cancer cells directly without going through immune intermediaries. CBD hijacks the lipoxygenase pathway to directly inhibit tumor growth.5 As a side note, it has been discovered that CBD inhibits anandamide reuptake. This means that cannabidiol helps the body preserve its own natural endocannabinoid by inhibiting the enzyme that breaks down anandamide.6
Coincidentally, it is not only CBD that is specifically cytotoxic to cancer cells, THC takes a different approach the task:
THC achieves this wizardry by binding to protein receptors on a cancerous cell’s surface. Once attached, the THC induces the cell to make a fatty substance called ceramide, which prompts the cell to start devouring itself. “We see programmed cell death,” Velasco says. What’s more, noncancerous cells don’t make ceramide when they come into contact with THC. The healthy cells don’t die.7
Just for clarity, endogenous ceramide (a signaling sphingolipid) disrupts the mitochondrial function of making ATP (adenosine triphosphate), thus the cancer cell becomes energy starved. ATP is the energy donor for all essential cell functions. Once the mitochondria shut down, the cell dies.8
Endogenous ceramide’s day job is to speed destruction of already stressed or senescent cells. We seen now that in the presence of THC, ceramide senses cancer cells as stressed or senescent, thus speeding their death. 8
Before leaving this topic it is important that we differentiate between plant based ceramide (phytosphingosine) and mammalian ceramide (endogenous sphignosine). Plant ceramide has a slightly different molecular structure but very different bioactivity. Ingested, it is a moisturizing lipid that supports the skin (stratum corneum) enhancing the moisture barrier that keeps epidermis from drying out. This is good, you should get some. I tried it and liked it.
First let’s look at what keeps cancer cells alive, then we will come back and examine how the cannabinoids CBD (cannabidiol) and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) unravels cancer’s aliveness.
In every cell there is a family of interconvertible sphingolipids that specifically manage the life and death of that cell. This profile of factors is called the “Sphingolipid Rheostat.” If endogenous ceramide (a signaling metabolite of sphingosine-1-phosphate) is high, then cell death (apoptosis) is imminent. If ceramide is low, the cell is strong in its vitality.
Very simply, when THC connects to the CB1 or CB2 cannabinoid receptor site on the cancer cell, it causes an increase in ceramide synthesis which drives cell death. A normal healthy cell does not produce ceramide in the presence of THC, thus is not affected by the cannabinoid.
The cancer cell dies, not because of cytotoxic chemicals, but because of a tiny little shift in the mitochondria. Within most cells there is a cell nucleus, numerous mitochondria (hundreds to thousands), and various other organelles in the cytoplasm. The purpose of the mitochondria is to produce energy (ATP) for cell use. As ceramide starts to accumulate, turning up the Sphingolipid Rheostat, it increases the mitochondrial membrane pore permeability to cytochrome c, a critical protein in energy synthesis. Cytochrome c is pushed out of the mitochondria, killing the source of energy for the cell.
Ceramide also causes genotoxic stress in the cancer cell nucleus generating a protein called p53, whose job it is to disrupt calcium metabolism in the mitochondria. If this weren’t enough, ceramide disrupts the cellular lysosome, the cell’s digestive system that provides nutrients for all cell functions. Ceramide, and other sphingolipids, actively inhibit pro-survival pathways in the cell leaving no possibility at all of cancer cell survival.
The key to this process is the accumulation of ceramide in the system. This means taking therapeutic amounts of CBD and THC, steadily, over a period of time, keeping metabolic pressure on this cancer cell death pathway.
How did this pathway come to be? Why is it that the body can take a simple plant enzyme and use it for profound healing in many different physiological systems? This endocannabinoid system exists in all animal life, just waiting for its matched exocannabinoid activator.
This is interesting. Our own endocannabinoid system covers all cells and nerves; it is the messenger of information flowing between our immune system and the central nervous system (CNS). It is responsible for neuroprotection, and micro-manages the immune system. This is the primary control system that maintains homeostasis; our well being.
Just out of curiosity, how does the work get done at the cellular level, and where does the body make the endocannabinoids? Here we see that endocannabinoids have their origin in nerve cells right at the synapse. When the body is compromised through illness or injury it calls insistently to the endocannabinoid system and directs the immune system to bring healing. If these homeostatic systems are weakened, it should be no surprise that exocannabinoids are therapeutic. It helps the body in the most natural way possible.
To see how this works we visualize the cannabinoid as a three dimensional molecule, where one part of the molecule is configured to fit the nerve or immune cell receptor site just like a key in a lock. There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptor sites, CB1 (CNS) and CB2 (immune). In general CB1 activates the CNS messaging system, and CB2 activates the immune system, but it’s much more complex than this. Both THC and anandamide activate both receptor sites. Other cannabinoids activate one or the other receptor sites. Among the strains of Cannabis, C. sativa tends toward the CB1 receptor, and C. indica tends toward CB2. So sativa is more neuroactive, and indica is more immunoactive. Another factor here is that sativa is dominated by THC cannabinoids, and indica is predominately CBD (cannabidiol).
It is known that THC and CBD are biomimetic to anandamide, that is, the body can use both interchangeably. Thus, when stress, injury, or illness demand more from endogenous anandamide than can be produced by the body, its mimetic exocannabinoids are activated. If the stress is transitory, then the treatment can be transitory. If the demand is sustained, such as in cancer, then treatment needs to provide sustained pressure of the modulating agent on the homeostatic systems.
Typically CBD gravitates to the densely packed CB2 receptors in the spleen, home to the body’s immune system. From there, immune cells seek out and destroy cancer cells. Interestingly, it has been shown that THC and CBD cannabinoids have the ability to kill cancer cells directly without going through immune intermediaries. THC and CBD hijack the lipoxygenase pathway to directly inhibit tumor growth. As a side note, it has been discovered that CBD inhibits anandamide reuptake. Here we see that cannabidiol helps the body preserve its own natural endocannabinoid by inhibiting the enzyme that breaks down anandamide.
This brief survey touches lightly on a few essential concepts. Mostly I would like to leave you with an appreciation that nature has designed the perfect medicine that fits exactly with our own immune system of receptors and signaling metabolites to provide rapid and complete immune response for systemic integrity and metabolic homeostasis.
1.http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/65/5/1635.abstract Sami Sarfaraz, Farrukh Afaq, Vaqar M. Adhami, and Hasan Mukhtar + Author Affiliations. Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 2.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/pubmed J Neuroimmunol. 2007 Mar;184(1-2):127-35. Epub 2006 Dec 28. Immune control by endocannabinoids - new mechanisms of neuroprotection? Ullrich O, Merker K, Timm J, Tauber S. Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany. email@example.com 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endocannabinoid_system Endocannabinoid synthesis & release. 4.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabinoids Cannabinoid receptor type 1. 5. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121381780/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 Journal of Neurochemistry, Volume 104 Issue 4, Pages 1091 - 1100 Published Online: 18 Aug 2008 6. http://leavesofgrass.info/info/Non-Psychoactive-Cannabinoids.pdf Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb. Angelo A. Izzo, Francesca Borrelli, Raffaele Capasso, Vincenzo Di Marzo, and Raphael Mechoulam. Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy. Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, National Research Council, Pozzuoli (NA), Italy. Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, Hebrew University Medical Faculty, Jerusalem, Israel, Endocannabinoid Research Group, Italy 7.http://sciencenews.org/view/feature/id/59872/title/Not_just_a_high Scientists test medicinal marijuana against MS, inflammation and cancer By Nathan Seppa June 19th, 2010; Vol.177 #13 (p. 16) 8.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1766198/ NIH Public Access: A house divided: ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate in programmed cell death Tarek A. Taha, Thomas D. Mullen, and Lina M. Obeid Division of General Internal Medicine, Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Administration Hospital, Charleston, South Carolina 29401; and Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 Corresponding author: Lina M. Obeid, M.D., Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 114 Doughty St., P.O.Box 250779, Charleston, South Carolina 29425. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 9.Yap WN, Chang PN, Han HY, et al. (December 2008). "Gamma-tocotrienol suppresses prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion through multiple-signalling pathways". British Journal of Cancer 99 (11): 1832–41. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604763. PMID 19002171. 10.Ellagitannin-rich pomegranate extract inhibits angiogenesis in prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. Int J Oncol. 2008 Feb;32(2):475-80. Sartippour MR, Seeram NP, Rao JY, Moro A, Harris DM, Henning SM, Firouzi A, Rettig MB, Aronson WJ, Pantuck AJ, Heber D. Center for Human Nutrition, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1742, USA.